What's included?

The general outline of the issues we analysed for computing the annual energy yield is:

  • The transposition of the radiation components to the tilted plane.
  • Using a library to compute the sun position.
  • The sun-tracking algorithm used in single-axis trackers (backtracking).
  • Computation of the effects of shadows on the irradiance received by a tilted plane.
  • Computation of the irradiance perceived by the back-face, used for bifacial simulations.
  • Electrical generation of a photovoltaic module being irradiated, and it’s associated losses.
  • Estimating the effect of partial shadows on strings of modules.
  • Performance of an electrical inverter and window of operation.
  • Electrical losses in a utility-scale photovoltaic plant.

Learn more about methodology's authors: Félix Pérez, Juan Romero and Miguel Ángel Torrero.